Science Form 4 Chap 2.2 Human Nervous System

2.2 Human Nervous System

Made up of:

a) Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord

b) Peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves (12 pairs, brain to sensory organs 耳、鼻、眼、心脏) and spinal nerves (31 pairs, spinal cord to sensory and effector organs 手、脚)

Brain – protected by cranium

Spinal cord – protected by backbone

(^ not so important, tho)


Neurones (aka basic unit of the nervous system)

Made up of:

a) Cell body – nucleus and cytoplasm

b) Dendrons and axons (both ends with dendrites)

How to differentiate the path dendrons and axons bring the impulse

(from the cell body to sensory organs) axons走开  dendrons进来

Myelin sheath

  • acts as insulator and source of food for dendrons and axons
  • breaks down at intervals (节)- to speed up transmissions of impulses along the axons

Three types of neurones:

a) sensory neurones

b) motor neurones

c) relay neurones

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Science Form 4 Chapter 2.1 – Body Coordination

2.1 Body Coordination

Body coordination is the process which ensures the harmonious actions of various organs and systems in the body to produce a coordinated response.

2 systems – Nervous system (快、短)& Endocrine system (慢、长)

The pathway of both systems (how they basically function):

Stimulus (External/Internal) -> Sensory organ -> Coordination centre -> Effector organ -> Response

Importance of Body Coordination:

  • Ensure the survival of humans and organisms
  • Avoid danger
  • Adapt to the environment
  • Maintain hormonal balance

Science Form 4 Chapter 1

Scientific Investigation:

  1. Identify the problem
  2. Identify the variables – Manipulated 改变, Corresponding 结果, Constant
  3. Form a hypothesis
  4. Plan an investigation
  5. Carry out the investigation
  6. Observe and collect data
  7. Analyse and interpret data
  8. Conclusion
  9. Write a report

Scientific Attitude:

(Numbered according to the upper section)

  1. Flexibility, open-minded
  2. Being objective 客观
  3. Rational, being objective
  4. Being systematic, rational, critical, analytical, respectful, well-mannered
  5. Confident, independent, responsible, cooperative,diligence, perseverance
  6. Honesty, accuracy, confident, independent
  7. Critical and analytical
  8. Rational, fair, just